Und die Hauptstressquelle ist h ufig das Arbeitsleben: Unter Leistungs- und Zeitdruck entsteht Konkurrenz, die Mobbing beg nstigt; Ver nderungsdruck und berforderung erzeugen Dauerstress. Wer sich vom Stress auffressen l sst, "brennt aus," hat das Gef hl, er kann nicht mehr.
Aber wir wollen auch gefordert werden, unsere F higkeiten unter Beweis stellen unter den passenden Bedingungen kann Stress sogar positiv wirken! Sven Litzcke und Horst Schuh helfen, den eigenen Weg zwischen krankmachendem Stress und positiven Herausforderungen zu finden. Grundlagenwissen hilft verstehen: Stressentstehung, Stressfolgen und Stressbew ltigung, Mobbing als ein extremer sozialer Stressor, das Burn-out-Syndrom und Tat Praxisorientierte Methoden zeigen Ihnen, wie Sie Stress bew ltigen, mit Mobbing umgehen und Burn-out vermeiden k nnen Tagesprotokolle, bungen, Arbeitsbl tter f r die Selbsthilfe Schwierige Situationen im Beruf meistern Stress, Mobbing und Burn-out bew ltigen!
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Nevertheless, there were also discrepancies, e. Mean and standard deviation of mobbing scales range from min. Mean and standard deviation of mobbing scales range from min 0 to max for different occupational groups. Both the single-item scale and the five-item scale were associated with all six outcome scales, i. The results of the log-binomial regression analyses confirmed that being exposed to mobbing, as it was measured in this study, was associated with an increased overall risk of strain at work.
We also found gender differences. According to the single-item scale, bullied females had a noticeably higher risk of an intention to quit their job PR of 2.
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On the contrary, according to the five-item scale, the prevalence risk ratios were lower for bullied females PR of 1. This population-based study aimed at 1 examining the adequacy of the proposed five-item scale; 2 comparing the proposed five-item scale with the single item that measures mobbing in the German standard version of the COPSOQ; and 3 testing the differential impact of the measured mobbing strategies on relevant outcome parameters. However, as mobbing comprises a variety of different strategies, our emphasis laid on developing a scale with high sensitivity that covers the breadth of the construct sufficiently rather than maximizing internal consistency.
Item collections intended to reflect a broad construct such as mobbing will, on average, correlate less highly with each other than will items reflecting a narrow, more tightly defined construct, because each item can only represent a smaller portion of the broad construct Smith et al. Indeed, regarding sexual harassment, some researchers assume it to be conceptually different from other mobbing strategies Bergman and Henning ; Kauppinen and Tuomola Consequently, the Swedish Heinz Leymann included sexual harassment in his mobbing inventory, the LIPT31, which represents the basis for the newly developed five-item scale Leymann Our empirical findings support this notion, because both the principal component analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis attested the adequacy of the five-item scale as a one-factor mobbing measure, i.
The single-item scale yielded slightly higher numerical scores for mobbing compared to the five-item scale Concerning the latter, research has demonstrated that while sexual harassment at the workplace is severe and linked to a wide range of negative outcomes in victims Berdahl and Raver ; Cortina and Berdahl , sexual harassment is not as common as nonsexual mobbing strategies with men being considerably less frequently affected than women Kauppinen and Tuomola This explains the lower scores for sexual harassment in our study and why we were not able to estimate prevalence risk ratios for men with regard to this item.
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Not many employees have such a high number of working areas that one can be taken away every week. At the same time, once a work area is taken, it may have significant long-term detrimental effects. With such a short scale, it was not possible to cover as many categories. However, while this fourth category belongs to the less harmful indirect mobbing strategies Escartin et al. The scale was also related to all six outcome measures, and effect sizes were comparable to those of the five-item scale.
The reason for this may be the open wording of the item without pinpointing concrete acts, which allows for measuring a wide array of mobbing strategies of direct psychological abuse. On the other hand, the differential impact of mobbing became evident when the five-item scale was applied. We could demonstrate that health risks may differ depending on the particular mobbing strategy. We also found gender-specific differences. In this study, females rated the severity of many types of mobbing as more severe than males did.
It is conceivable that men are more affected by work-related forms of mobbing Escartin et al. In support of this, Escartin et al. Discussing causality and the detrimental impact of mobbing at work, we cannot rule out a common source bias, as the results are based on self-report only.
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In a similar vein, the cross-sectional nature of this study and the potential reverse causality has to be kept in mind. Currently, the GHS is assessing 5-year follow-up data. These data will give the opportunity to control for initial states and to prospectively analyze the impact of mobbing on work-related outcomes and even hard outcomes such as cardiovascular events. In this paper, two constructs assessing mobbing were examined.
Within a population-based cross-sectional study, both scales proved to be psychometrically appropriate as both were markedly and very similarly associated with relevant self-reported outcome parameters. The proposed five-item scale could even demonstrate a differential impact on the various outcomes.
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Taking the LIPT31 as a gold standard, the five-item scale also showed a very high sensitivity. Particularly, items 4 and 5 were somewhat problematic. Multiple-item measures are normally to be preferred because of reliability concerns Nunnally Nonetheless, if a single-item measure demonstrates predictive validity in terms of correlation or regression coefficients equal to that of the multiple-item measure, reliability becomes a minor issue Bergkvist and Rossiter Therefore, until the five-item scale is further improved, the parsimonious single-item measure in the COPSOQ seems to be a good alternative to measure mobbing at work.
The present study has a cross-sectional design; hence, its results have to be interpreted cautiously. Currently, the GHS is assessing the 5-year follow-up data. Further conclusions about the relationship between mobbing or certain mobbing strategies and defined illnesses, such as cardiovascular events, will be possible when these data are available. Kommt es vor, dass auf Sie nicht reagiert wird, wenn Sie jemanden ansprechen wollen? Susan Garthus-Niegel, Email: moc. Stephan Letzel, Email: ed. Janice Hegewald, Email: ed. Mandy Wagner, Email: ed. Philipp S.
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Consulation in Cases of Mobbing, Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
Andreas Seidler, Email: ed. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Please note that the vocabulary items in this list are only available in this browser.
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